Machine to machine

Machine to machine refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel , including wired and wireless. [1] [2] Machine to machine communication can include industrial instrumentation, enabling a sensor or meter to communicate the data it records (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.) to application software that can use it (for example, adjusting an industrial process based on temperature or placing orders to replenish inventory). [3] Such communication was successful by having a remote network of machines relay information back to a central hub for analysis, which would then be rerouted into a system like a personal computer. [4]

More recent machine to machine has changed into a system of networks that transmits data to personal appliances. The expansion of IP networks around the world has become easier. [5] These networks also allow new business opportunities for consumers and suppliers. [6]


Wired communication machines have been using signaling to exchange information since the early 20th century. Machine to machine has taken over sophisticated forms of computer networking automation [7] and predates cellular communication. It has been used in such applications as telemetry , industrial , automation , SCADA .

Machine to Machine Devices That combined telephony and computing Were first conceptualized by Theodore Paraskevakos while working On His Caller ID system in 1968, later patented in the US in 1973. This system, similar distinct purpose from the panel call indicator of the 1920s and automatic number identification of the 1940s, which is called the number of machines, was the predecessor to which is now called ID , which communicates numbers to people.

After several attempts and experiments, it must be developed in a manner that allows it to be carried out in a manner that allows it to be carried out. His portable transmitter and receiver were reduced to practice in 1971 at a Boeing facility in Huntsville, Alabama, representing the world’s first working prototypes of caller identification devices (shown at right). They were installed at Peoples’ Telephone Company in Leesburg, Alabama and Athens, Greece where they were demonstrated to be successful. This method was the basis for the modern-day Caller ID technology. He was also the first to introduce the concepts of intelligence,[8]

In 1977, Paraskevakos started Metretek, Inc. in Melbourne, FL to conduct commercial automatic meter reading and load management for electrical services which led to the ” smart grid ” and ” smart meter “. To achieve mass appeal, a single chip processing and transmission method. Motorola was contracted in 1978 to develop and produce the single chip, but the chip was too large for Motorola’s capabilities at that time. As a result, it became two separate chips (shown at right).

While cellular is becoming more common, many machines still use landlines (POTS, DSL, cable) to connect to the IP network. The cellular M2M communications industry emerged in 1995 when Siemens set up its mobile phone business unit to develop a mobile data module called “M1” [9] based on the Siemens mobile phone S6 for M2M industrial applications, enabling machines to communicate over wireless networks. In October 2000, the modules became a separate business unit called Siemens “Wireless Modules” which in June 2008 became a standalone company called Cinterion Wireless Modules . The first module M1 Was used for early point of sale (POS) terminals, invehicle telematics , remote monitoring and tracking and tracing applications. Machine to machine technology was first embraced by early implementers such as GM and Hughes Electronics Corporation who realized the benefits and future potential of the technology. By 1997, machine to machine wireless technology has become more prevalent and sophisticated as it has been developed and marketed.

21st century machine to machine data modules-have newer features and capabilities Such As onboard global positioning (GPS) technology, flexible land array area grid mounting, embedded machine to machine optimized smart cards (like phone SIMs ) Known As MIM gold machine to machine identification modules , and embedded Java , an important enabling technology to accelerate the Internet of Things (IOT). Another example of an early use is OnStar’s system of communication. [10]

The hardware components of a machine to machine network are manufactured by a few key players. In 1998, Quake Global began designing and manufacturing machine to machine satellite and terrestrial modems. [11] Initially relying heavily on ORBCOMM network for its satellite communication services, Quake Global expanded its telecommunication product offerings by engaging both satellite and terrestrial networks, which gave Quake Global an edge in providing network agnostic [12] products.

In the 2000s

In 2004, Digi International began producing wireless gateways and routers. Shortly after in 2006, Digi purchased Max Stream, the manufacturer of XBee radios. These hardware components allowed users to connect machines. Since then, Digi has partnered with several companies to connect hundreds of thousands of devices around the world.

In 2004, Christopher Lowery, a UK telecom entrepreneur, founded Wyless Group, one of the first Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) in the M2M space. Abstract: Fixed IP Addressing combined with Managed Connectivity over VPNs. The company expanded to the US in 2008 and became T-Mobile’s largest partners on both sides of the Atlantic.

In 2006, Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp. started work with NASA to develop automated machine to machine intelligence. Automated machine to machine can be used for a wide variety of mechanisms, such as sensors, devices, server computers, robots, spacecraft and grid systems. [13]

In 2009, AT & T and Jasper Technologies, Inc. entered into an agreement to support the creation of machine to machine devices jointly. They would have said that they would be more likely to drive a connection between the consumer and the machine. [14] 2009 also saw the introduction of real-time management of GSM and CDMA network services for machine to machine applications with the launch of PRiSMPro ™ Platform from KORE Telematics. The platform focused on making a multi-network management system. [15]

Also in 2009, Wyless Group introduced PORTHOS ™, its multi-operator, multi-application, agnostic device Open Data Management Platform. The company introduced a new industry definition, Global Network Enabler, comprising customer-facing platform management of networks, devices and applications.

Also in 2009, the Norwegian incumbent Telenor concluded ten years of machine to machine research by setting up two entities serving the upper (services) and lower (connectivity) parts of the value chain. Telenor Connexion [16]in Sweden draws on Vodafone ‘s research capabilities in the field of logistics, fleet management , car safety, healthcare, and smart metering of electricity consumption. [17] Telenor Objects has a similar role in supplying connectivity to machine to machine networks across Europe. Telefonicaset up a business branch of Telefónica Digital Specialized in machine to machine with comprehensive solutions for managed connectivity, transportation and utilities and sustainability [18] In the UK, Business MVNO Abica , commenced trials with Telehealth and Telecare applications qui required secure data transit via Private APN and HSPA + / 4G LTE connectivity with static IP address.

In the 2010s

In early 2010 in the US, AT & T , KPN , Rogers , Telcel / America Movil and Jasper Technologies, Inc. began working on a machine-to-machine basis. to machine communication electronics. [19] In February 2010, Vodafone , Verizon Wireless and nPhase (a joint partnership of Qualcomm and Verizon) announced their strategic alliance to provide global machine to machine solutions that would offer their customers an easy way to roll machine to machine solutions across Europe and the US. [20]In March 2010, Sprint and Axeda Corporation announced their strategic alliance for global M2M solutions. [21] In January 2011, Aeris Communications, Inc. announced that it is providing machine to machine telematics services for Hyundai Motor Corporation. [22] Partnerships like these make it easier, and more cost-efficient for businesses to use machine to machine. In June 2010, Tyntec mobile messaging operator announced the availability of its high-reliability SMS services for M2M applications.

In March 2011, KORE Wireless teamed with Vodafone Group and Iridium Communications Inc., respectively, to make KORE Global Connect network services available via cellular and satellite connectivity in more than 180 countries, with a single point for billing, support, logistics and relationship management. Later that year, KOREA acquired Australia-based Mach Communications Pty Ltd. in response to increased M2M demand within Asia-Pacific markets. [23] [24]

In April 2011, Ericsson acquired Telenor’s machine to machine platform, in an effort to get more technology and know-how in the growing sector. [25]

In August 2011, Ericsson announced that they have successfully completed the acquisition of Telenor Connexion’s contract (machine to machine) technology platform. [26]

Cloud connectivity is becoming a significant piece of the machine to machine solution as a cellular and wireless connection speeds increase. Machine to machine solutions providers now offers platforms as a service (PaaS), which simplifies machine networks by allowing users to manage deployments remotely. Device Cloud by Etherios is a PaaS that can integrate into the platform and offers APIs that can be used to develop a custom application.

According to the independent wireless analyst firm Berg Insight , the number of cellular network connections worldwide used for machine communication was 47.7 million in 2008. The company forecasts that the number of machine to machine connections will grow to 187 million by 2014. [27 ]

A research study from the E-Plus Group [28] shows that in 2010 2.3 million machine to machine smart cards will be in the German market. According to the study, this figure will rise in 2013 to over 5 million smart cards. The main growth driver is segment “tracking and tracing” with an expected average growth rate of 30 percent. The fastest growing M2M segment in Germany, with an average annual growth of 47 percent, will be the consumer electronics segment.

In April 2013, the OASIS MQTT standards group is formed with the goal of working on a lightweight publish / subscribe reliable messaging transport protocol suitable for communication in M2M / IoT contexts. [29] IBM and StormMQThis Machine and Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp. is the secretary. [30] In May 2014, the committee published the MQTT and NIST Cybersecurity Framework Version 1.0 The MISTs for Mentoring and Maintaining Cybersecurity Framework. [31]

In May 2013, KORE Telematics, Oracle, Deutsche Telekom , Digi International , ORBCOMM and Telit formed the International Machine to Machine Council (IMC). The first trade organization to serve the machine to the machine, the IMC aims at making the machine to machine and to the machine operators. [32] [33]

In May 2013, Wyless Group introduced Wyless Connect, a Bundled Solution offering, a managed routing equipment and a managed solution for connectivity and implementation of fail-over and back-up requirements for multi-branch businesses.

In September 2013, Wyless Group acquired a majority stake in TM Data, an M2M service provider in Brazil.

In February 2014, Wyless Group signed an agreement with T-Mobile to implement a T-Mobile instance of the Wyless Porthos Data Management Platform, hosted at Interoute’s New York Data Center. All T-Mobile’s US M2M traffic would be managed by the Porthos platform.

In April 2014, Wyless Group acquired Aspider Solutions M2M BV, a Netherlands M2M service provider, operating in Netherlands, Germany and Belgium.

In April 2016, Wyless Group was acquired by KORE Telematics for an undisclosed sum, making KORE the largest global non-MNO provider of M2M – IoT services with over 3 million deployments.


These networks are all interconnected, and they are interconnected with each other, and they are used in a number of ways. Such information serves to streamline products that allow consumers to buy and operate at their highest efficiency. [6]

Another application is to use wireless technology to monitor systems, such as utility meters . This would have allowed the user to have a certain level of certainty. citation needed ] In Quebec, Rogers will connect Quebec Hydro’s central system with up to 600 Smart Meter collectors, which aggregate data from the province’s 3.8-million Smart Meters. Citation needed ] In the UK, Telefonica won was € 1.78 trillion ($ 2.4 trillion) smart-meter contract to Provide connectivity services over period of 15 years in the central and southern regions of the country. The contract is the industry’s biggest deal yet.[34]

A third application is to use wireless networks to update digital billboards. This allows advertisers to display different messages based on the time of day or day-of-week, and permits quick global changes for messages, such as pricing changes for gasoline. quote needed ]

The industrial machine to machine is undergoing a transformation of a large number of people, devices, sensors and machines to corporate networks. Today, industries such as oil and gas, precision agriculture , military , government, smart cities / municipalities , manufacturing , and public utilities , among others, utilize machine to machine technologies for a myriad of applications. Many companies-have enabled complex and efficient data networking technologies to Provide capabilities Such as high-speed data transmission , mobile mesh networking , and 3G / 4Gcellular backhaul .

Telematics and in-vehicle entertainment is an area of ​​focus for machine to machine developers. Recent examples include Ford Motor Company , which has teamed with AT & T to wirelessly connect Ford Focus Electric with an embedded wireless connection and dedicated app, which includes the ability to charge and charge the vehicle, and plan single-or multiple-stop journeys, locate charging stations, pre-heat or cool the car. citation needed ] In 2011, Audi partnered with T-Mobile and RACO Wirelessto offer Audi Connect. Audi Connect provides users access to news, weather, and fuel prices while turning the mobile phone into a secure mobile Wi-Fi hotspot, allowing passengers access to the Internet. [35]

Networks in prognostics and health management

Machine to machine wireless networks can be used to improve the production and efficiency of machines, to enhance the reliability and safety of complex systems, and to promote the life cycle management of key assets and products. By applying Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) techniques in machine networks, the following goals can be achieved or improved:

  • Near-zero downtime performance of machines and systems;
  • Health management of a fleet of similar machines.

The application of intelligent analysis tools and Device-to-Business (D2B) TM informatics platform form the basis of e-maintenance machine network that can lead to near-zero downtime performance of machines and systems. [36]The e-maintenance machine network provides integration between the factory floor system and e-business system, and thus enables real time decision-making. [37]In addition, with the help of highly interconnected machines and advance intelligent analysis tools, several novel maintenance types are made possible nowadays. For instance, the remote maintenance without dispatching engineers on-site, the online maintenance without shutting down the operating machines or systems, and the predictive maintenance before a machine failure become catastrophic. All these benefits of e-maintenance machine network add up to the maintenance efficiency and transparency significantly.

As described in, [38]The framework of e-maintenance machine network consists of sensors, data acquisition system, communication network, analytic agents, decision-making support knowledge base, information synchronization interface and e-business system for decision making. Initially, the sensors, controllers and operators with data acquisition are automatically used via internet or intranet. The Data Transform Layer then employs the signal processing tools and feature extraction methods to convert the data into useful information. This converter provides information about the reliability and reliability of the software. The synchronization module and intelligent tools include the major processing power of the e-maintenance machine network and provide optimization, prediction, clustering, classification, bench-marking and so on. The results from this module can be synchronized and shared with the e-business system for decision making. In real application, the synchronization module will provide the connection to other departments, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relation Management (CRM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM).

Another application of machine to machine network is the management of a similar machine using clustering approach. This method was developed to address the challenge of developing non-stationary operating systems with incomplete data. The overall methodology consists of two stages: 1) Fleet Clustering to a group of similar machines for sound comparison; 2) Local Cluster Fault Detection to evaluate the similarity of individual machines to the fleet features. The purpose of fleet clustering is to be used in the context Within the framework of peer to peer

The fleet level health management using clustering approach Was patented icts for implementation in wind turbine health monitoring [39] after-validated in a wind turbine fleet of three wind farms distributed. [40]Different with other industrial devices with fixed or static schemes, wind turbine operating conditions are greatly dictated by wind speed and other ambient factors. Even though the multi-modeling methodology may be applicable in this scenario, the number of wind turbines in a wind farm is almost infinite and may not be present as a practical solution. Instead, this problem can be properly solved and local fault detection models can be effective built. The results of wind turbines reported in [39] [41] demonstrated the effectiveness of applying a cluster-based fault detection methodology in the wind turbine networks.

Fault detection for a horde of industrial robots. Industrial robots are crucial in automotive manufacturingand perform different tasks as welding, material handling, painting, etc. In this scenario, robotic maintenance will become critical to ensure continuous production and avoid downtime. Historically, the fault detection models for the industrial robots are similarly trained. Critical model parameters like training components, components, and alarming limits are set the same for all the units of their different functionalities. Even though these false fault detection models can be used to identify faults sometimes. However, within a machine network, industrial robots with similar tasks or working schemes can be group together; the abnormal units in a cluster can then be prioritized for maintenance via training based or instantaneous comparison.[40]

Open initiatives

  • Eclipse machine to machine industry working group (open communication protocols, tools, and frameworks), the umbrella of various projects including Koneki , Eclipse SCADA
  • ITU-T Focus Group M2M (global standardization initiative for a common M2M service layer ) [42]
  • 3GPP studies security aspects for machine to machine (M2M) equipment, In Particular SIM automatic activation covering remote provisioning and change of subscription. [43]
  • Weightless – standard group on TV “white space” for M2M
  • XMPP (Jabber) protocol [44]
  • OASIS MQTT – standards group communication on a lightweight publish / subscribe reliable messaging transport protocol suitable for communication in M2M / IoT contexts. [30]
  • Open Mobile Alliance (OMA_LWM2M) protocol [45]
  • RPMA (Ingenu)
  • Industrial Internet Consortium

See also

  • OpenGate
  • Plant floor communication
  • Process driven messaging service
  • Protocol converter
  • Smart, connected products
  • Universal gateway


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