Big data ethics refers to the ethical dilemmas and concerns presented by big data technologies and industries. Big data is characterized by being continually produced, often without the producers’ direct intent.  The ethical concerns raised by big data from privacy and data ownership, to open data and democracy issues.
Big data ethics is concerned with four principles: information privacy , data ownership , open data , and data sovereignty .
As a result of the shift towards a big data, personal information, or health information, or shopping preferences.  Jonathan H. King and Neil M. Richards to re-imagine the definition of privacy, and others to question whether or not privacy still exists.  In a 2014 article for the Wake Forest Law Review , King and Richard argue that privacy in the digital age can be understood in the context of personal information. 
Data ownership deals with similar issues as privacy, as issues with [ quote needed ]
The idea of open data argues that it should be freely available and should not be restricted. Many governments have begun to move toward publishing open datasets for the purpose of transparency and accountability.  This movement has gained traction through “open data activists” who have called for governments to make data and to be able to test themselves.   King and Richards have argued that this call for transparency includes a tension between openness and secrecy. 
Activists and scholars have also argued that this open-sourced model of data is based on voluntary participation, the availability of open datasets has a democratizing effect on society, allowing any citizen to participate.  To some, the availability of certain types of data is seen as a right and an essential part of a citizen’s agency. 
Data sovereignty refers to a government’s control over the data that is generated and collected within a country. 
- The Open Knowledge Foundation
- Jump up^ Kitchin, Rob (2014-08-18). The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences . WISE. p. 27. ISBN 9781473908253 .
- Jump up^ Zwitter, A. (2014). “Big Data Ethics”. Big Data & Society . 1 : 4.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Richards and King SL and JH (2014). “Big data ethics” . Wake Forest Law Review . 49 : 393-432.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kalin, I. (2014). “Open data policy improves democracy”. The SAIS Review of International Affairs . 34 : 59.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Baack, S. (2015). “Datafication and Empowerment: Re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism”. Big Data & Society . 2 : 1-2.
- Jump up^ by Jong-Chen, J. (2015). “Data Sovereignty, Cybersecurity, and Challenges for Globalization” . Georgetown Journal of International Affairs : 112.
- Baack, S. (2015). Datafication and Empowerment: Re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism. Big Data & Society, 2 (2) 1-11. doi: 10.1177 / 2053951715594634
- from Jong-Chen, J. (2015). Data sovereignty, cybersecurity, and challenges for globalization. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs ,, 112-122. http://proxy.library.carleton.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy.library.carleton.ca/docview/1832800533?accountid=9894
- Kalin, I. (2014). Open data policy improves democracy. The SAIS Review of International Affairs, 34 (1), 59-70. Retrieved from http://proxy.library.carleton.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy.library.carleton.ca/docview/1552151732?accountid=9894
- Kitchin, R. The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructure and Its Consequences, (pp. 165-183). SAGE Publications . Kindle Edition.
- Kostkova, P., Brewer, H., Lusignan, S., Fottrell, E., Goldacre, B., Hart, G., Phil, P., Knight, P., Marsolier, C., McKendry, RA, Ross, E. Sasse, A., Sullivan, R., Chaytor, S., Stevenson, O., Velho, R. & Tooke, J. Who Owns the Data? Open Data for Healthcare. Frontiers in Public Health, 4 (7). doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2016.00007
- Richards, NM; King, JH (2014). Big data ethics. Wake Forest Law Review 49 (2), 393-432. http://heinonline.org.proxy.library.carleton.ca/HOL/Page?public=false&handle=hein.journals/wflr49&page=393&collection=journals#
- Walker, RK, (2012). The Right to be Forgotten. Hastings Law Journal, 64 (1), 257- [vii]. http://heinonline.org.proxy.library.carleton.ca/HOL/Page?public=false&handle=hein.journals/hastlj64&page=257&collection=journals#
- Zwitter, A. (2014). Big Data Ethics. Big Data & Society, 1 (2): 1-6. doi: 10.1177 / 2053951714559253