A New Kind of Science is a best-selling, [1] controversial book by Stephen Wolfram , published by his own company in 2002. It contains an empirical and systematic study of computational systems such as cellular automata . Wolfram calls these systems simple programs and argues that the scientific philosophy and methods are appropriate for the study of other fields of science.

# Category: Computational fields of study

# Natural language processing

Natural language processing ( NLP ) is a field of computer science, an artificial intelligence that deals with the interaction between computers and human (natural) languages, and, in particular, concerns with programming computers.

# Hydroinformatics

Hydroinformatics is a branch of informatics qui concentrates on the implementation of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in Addressing the increasingly serious problems of the equitable and efficient use of water for Many different practical purposes. Growing out of the former discipline of computational hydraulics , the numerical simulation of water flows and related processes remains a mainstay of hydroinformatics, which encourages a focus not only on the technology and its application… More →

# Humanistic informatics

Humanistic Informatics (also known as Humanities Informatics ) is one of several names chosen for the study of the relationship between human culture and technology . The term is fairly common in Europe , is little purpose Known in the English-speaking world , though Digital Humanities (Also Known As Humanities Computing ) is in Many boxes Roughly equivalent.

# Museum informatics

Museum informatics [1] is an interdisciplinary field of study that refers to the theory and application of informatics by museums . It is in essence a sub-field of cultural informatics [2] at the intersection of culture , digital technology, and information science . In the context of the digital age, museums and archives, its place in the world has grown substantially and has connections with digital humanities . [3]

# Viroinformatics

Viroinformatics is an amalgamation of virology with bioinformatics , involving the application of information and communication technology in various aspects of viral research. Currently there are more than 100 different applications concerning diversity analysis, viral recombination, RNAi studies , drug design , protein-protein interaction , structural analysis and so on. [1]

# Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems . It is a biology -based interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach ( holism instead of the traditional reductionism ) to biological research.

# Stylometry

Stylometry is the application of the study of linguistic style , but it has been successfully applied to music [1] and to fine-art paintings [2] as well. [3]

# Simulation governance

Governance is a managerial function concerned with assurance of reliability of information generated by numerical simulation . The term was introduced in 2011 [1] and specific technical requirements were addressed from the perspective of mechanical design in 2012 [2] . Its strategic importance was addressed in 2015 [3] [4] . At the 2017 NAFEMS World Congress in Stockholm has been identified as the first of eight ” big issues ” in numerical simulation .

# Semantic analysis (computational)

Semantic analysis (computational) is a composite of the ” semantic analysis ” and the “computational” components. “Semantic analysis” refers to a formal analysis of the meaning, and “computational” refer to approaches that in principle support effective implementation. [1]

# Geoinformatics

Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography , cartography , geoscience and related branches of science and engineering.

# Geographic information system

A geographic information system ( GIS ) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data . The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science (GIScience) to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information systems [1] and is a broad domain within the broader academic discipline of geoinformatics . [2] What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure , a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.

# Financial modeling

Financial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model ) of a real world financial situation. [1] This is a mathematical model designed to represent (a simplified version of) the performance of a financial asset or portfolio of a business, project , or any other investment. Financial modeling is a general term that means different things to different users; the reference report is for accounting and corporate finance applications, or for quantitative finance applications. While there is… More →

# Environmental informatics

Environmental information is the science of information applied to environmental science . As a result, it provides the information processing and communication infrastructure to the interdisciplinary field of environmental science [1] , and the use of information and knowledge integration , the application of computational intelligence to environmental data and the identification of environmental impacts of information technology . The UK Natural Environment Research Councildefines environmental informatics as the “research and system development on the environment sciences relating to the creation, collection,… More →

# Disease informatics

Disease Informatics is the implementation of information science in defining the diseases with least error, Identifying MOST of the targets to fight cluster of diseases (Disease Causal Chain), and designing a holistic solution ( Health strategy) to the problem. [1]

# Data science

Data science , also known as data-driven science , is an interdisciplinary field of scientific methods, processes, and systems to extract knowledge or insights from data in various forms, which is either structured or unstructured, [1] [2] similar to data mining .

# Computer simulation

Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model . Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics ( computational physics ), astrophysics , climatology , chemistry and biology , human systems in economics , psychology , social science , and engineering . Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system’s model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technologyand to estimate the performance of systems… More →

# Computational X

Computational X is a term used to describe the various fields of study that have emerged from the applications of informatics and big data to specific disciplines. Examples include computational biology , computational neuroscience , computational physics , and computational linguistics .

# Computational transportation science

Computational Transportation Science (CTS) is an emerging discipline that combines computer science and engineering with modeling, planning, and economic aspects of transportation . The discipline studies how to improve the safety, mobility, and sustainability of the system by taking advantage of information technologies and ubiquitous computing . A list of subjects encompassed by CTS can be found at include. [1]

# Computational topology

Algorithmic topology , or computational topology , is a subfield of topology with an overlap of areas of computer science , in particular, computational geometry and computational complexity theory .

# Computational thinking

Computational thinking is a method of thinking that is problematic and expressing its solution (s) in such a way that a computer-human or machine-can effectively carry out. [1]

# Computational sustainability

Computational sustainability is a broad field that attempts to optimize societal, economic, and environmental resources using methods of mathematics and computer science fields. [1] Sustainability in this context is the ability to produce enough energy for the world to support its biological systems. Using the power of computers to process large quantities of information. [2]

# Computational Statistics & Data Analysis

Computational Statistics & Data Analysis is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research and applications of computational statistics and data analysis. The journal was established in 1983 and is the official journal of the International Association for Statistical Computing , [1] section of the International Statistical Institute .

# Computational statistics

Computational statistics , or statistical computing , is the interface between statistics and computer science . It is the area of computational science (or scientific computing) specific to the mathematical science of statistics . This area is also rapidly expanding to include a broader concept of computing as part of general statistical education . [1]

# Computational social science

Computational social science refers to the academic sub-disciplines concerned with computational approaches to the social sciences . This means that computers are used to model, simulate, and analyze social phenomena. Fields include computational economics , computational sociology , cliodynamics , culturomics , and the automated analysis of contents, in social and traditional media. It focuses on social and behavioral interactions and interactions through social simulation , modeling, network analysis, and media analysis. [1]

# Computational semiotics

Computational semiotics is an interdisciplinary field that applies, conducts, and draws on research in logic , mathematics , the theory and practice of computation , formal and natural language studies , the cognitive sciences , and semiotics proper. A common theme of this work is the adoption of a sign-theoretic perspective on issues of artificial intelligence and knowledge representation . Many of its applications lie in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and fundamental devices of recognition.

# Computational semantics

Computational semantics is the study of how to machine the process of Constructing and reasoning with meaning representations of natural language expressions. It plays an important role in natural language processing and computational linguistics .

# Computational scientist

A computational scientist is a person skilled in scientific computing . This person is usually a scientist , an engineer , or an applied mathematician who uses high-performance computers in different ways to advance the state-of-the-art in their respective applied disciplines; physics , chemistry , social sciences and so forth. Thus scientific computing has many influences such as economics, biology, law and medicine to name a few.

# Computational engineering

Computational science and engineering (CSE) is a relatively new discipline that deals with the development and application of computational models and simulations, often coupled with high-performance computing, to solve complex physical problems arising in engineering analysis and design (computational engineering) as well as natural phenomena (computational science). CSE has been described as the “third mode of discovery” (next to theory and experimentation).[1] In… More →

# Computational science

Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation ( SC )) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems. It is an area of science which spans many disciplines, but at its core it involves the development of models and simulations to understand natural systems.

# Computational physics

Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. [1] Historically, computational physics was the first application of modern computers in science, and is now a subset of computational science .

# Computational phylogenetics

Computational phylogenetics is the application of computational algorithms , methods, and programs to phylogenetic analyzes. The goal is to assemble a phylogenetic tree representing the evolutionary ancestry of a set of genes , species , or other taxa . For example, these techniques have been used to explore the family tree of hominid species [1] and the relationship between specific types of organisms. [2] Traditional phylogenetics related to morphological data obtained by measuring and quantifying the phenotypicmolecular nucleotide sequences encoding genes or amino acid sequences encoding proteins as the basis… More →

# Computational photography

Computational photography or computational imaging refers to digital image capture and processing techniques that use digital computation instead of optical processes. Computational photography can improve the capabilities of a camera, or introduce features that are not possible at all with film based photography. Examples of computational photography include in-camera computation of digital panoramas , [6] high-dynamic-range images , and light field cameras . Light field cameras, 3D image, enhanced depth-of-field, and selective de-focusing (or… More →

# Computational particle physics

Computational particle physics refers to the methods and computing tools developed by particle physics research. Like computational chemistry or computational biology , it is, for particle physics both a specific branch and an interdisciplinary field relying on computer science, theoretical and experimental particle physics and mathematics. The main fields of computational particle physics are: lattice field theory (numerical computations), automatic calculation of particle interaction or decay (computer algebra), and event generators (stochastic methods).

# Computational number theory

In mathematics and computer science , computational number theory , also known as algorithmic number theory , is the study of algorithms for performing numerical computations .

# Computational neuroscience

Computational Neuroscience (also theoretical neuroscience ) studies brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures That Make up the nervous system . [1] [2] It is an interdisciplinary computational science that links the various fields of neuroscience , cognitive science , and psychology with electrical engineering , computer science , mathematics , and physics .

# Computational neurogenetic modeling

Computational neurogenetic modeling (CNGM) is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes. These include neural network models and their integration with gene network models. This area Brings together knowledge from various scientific disciplines, Such As computer and information science , neuroscience and cognitive science , genetics and molecular biology , as well as engineering .

# Computational musicology

Computational musicology is defined as the study of music with computational modeling and simulation. [1] It was started in the 1950s and originally did not use computers, but more of statistical and mathematical methods. Nowadays computational musicology depends largely on complex algorithms . Computer science, computer music, systematic musicology, music information retrieval, computational musicology, digital musicology, sound and music computing and music informatics. [2]

# Computational mechanics

Computational Mechanics is the discipline concerned with the use of computational methods to study phenomena governed by the principles of mechanics . Before the emergence of computational science (also called scientific computing) as a “third way” besides theoretical and experimental sciences, computational mechanics was widely considered to be a sub-discipline of applied mechanics . It is now considered to be a sub-discipline within computational science.

# Computational Materials Science

Computational Materials Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier . It was established in October 1992. The editors-in-chief are H. Dreysse and S. Schmauder. The journal covers computational modeling and practical research for advanced materials and their applications. [2]

# Computational magnetohydrodynamics

Computational magnetohydrodynamics (CMHD) is a rapidly developing branch of magnetohydrodynamics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve problems that involve electrically conducting fluids. Most of the methods used in CMHD are used in computational fluid dynamics . The complexity is arises from the presence of a magnetic field and its coupling with the fluid. One of the important issues is to numerically maintain the\ displaystyle \ nabla \ cdot (conservation of magnetic… More →

# Computational logic

Computational logic is the use of logic to perform or reason about computation . It bears a similar relationship to science science and engineering as mathematical logic bears to mathematics and as philosophical logic bears to philosophy . It is synonymous with ” logic in computer science “.

# Computational lithography

Computational lithography (also known as computational scaling ) is the set of mathematical and algorithmic approaches designed to improve the resolution achievable through photolithography . Computational lithography has come to the forefront of photolithography in 2008 as the semiconductor industry grappled with the challenges associated with the transition to 22 nanometer CMOS process technology and beyond.

# Computational linguistics

Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic issues.

# Computational lexicology

Computational lexicology is a branch of computational linguistics , which is concerned with the use of computers in the study of lexicon . It has been more narrowly described by some scholars (Amsler, 1980) as the use of computers in the study of machine-readable dictionaries . It is distinguished from computational lexicography , which more properly would be the use of computers in the construction of dictionaries, but some researchers have… More →

# Computational learning theory

In computer science , computational learning theory (or just learning theory ) is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence Devoted to studying the design and analysis of machine learningalgorithms. [1]

# Computational law

Computational law is a branch of legal informatics concerned with the mechanization of legal reasoning (whether done by humans or by computers). [1] It emphasizes explicit behavioral constraints and eschews implicit rules of conduct. Importantly, there is a commitment to a level of rigor in specifying laws that is sufficient to support entirely mechanical processing.

# Computational journalism

Computational Journalism can be defined as the application of information gathering, organization, sensemaking, communication and dissemination of news information, while upholding values of journalism and accuracy and verifiability. [1] The field draws on technical aspects of computer science including artificial intelligence, content analysis (NLP, vision, hearing), visualization, personalization and recommender systems, and aspects of social computing and information science .

# Computational immunology

In academia , computational immunology is a field of science that encompasses high-throughput genomic and bioinformatics approaches to immunology . The field’s main aim is to convert data into computational immunological problems, solve problems thesis using mathematical and computational approaches And Then thesis convert results into immunologically Meaningful interpretations.

# Computational humor

Computational humor is a branch of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence which uses computers in humor research . It is a relatively new area, with the first dedicated conference organized in 1996. [1]

# Computational group theory

In mathematics , computational group theory is the study of groups by means of computers. It is concerned with designing and analyzing algorithms and data structures to compute information about groups. The subject HAS Attracted interest Because For Many interesting groups (Including MOST of the sporadic groups ) it is impractical to perform calculations by hand.

# Computational geophysics

Computational geophysics entails rapid numerical computations that help analyzes of geophysical data and observations. High-performance computing is involved, due to the size and complexity of the geophysical data to be processed. The main computing requirements are 3D and 4D images of the sub-surface earth , Modeling and Migration of complex media, Tomography and inverse problems .

# Computational geometry

Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry . Some purely geometrical problems arise from the study of computational geometric algorithms , and such problems are also considered to be part of computational geometry. While modern computational geometry is a recent development, it is one of the oldest fields of computation with history stretching back… More →

# Computational genomics

Computational genomics (1) refers to the use of computational and statistical analysis to decipher biology from genome sequences and related data, [1] including both DNA and RNA sequences as well as other “post-genomic” data (ie DNA microarrays, which requires the genome sequence . These fields are also often referred to as Computational and Statistical Genetics/ genomics. As such, computational genomics can be considered as a subset of bioinformatics and computational biology , but with a focus on whole genomes… More →

# Computational finance

Computational Finance is a branch of Applied Science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance . [1] Somewhat different definitions are the study of data and algorithms currently used in finance [2] and the mathematics of computer programs that realize financial models or systems . [3]

# Computational epistemology

Computational epistemology is a subdiscipline of formal epistemology that studies the intrinsic complexity of inductive problems for ideal and computationally bounded agents. In short, computational epistemology is to inducewhat recursion theory is to deduction .

# Computational epigenetics

Computational epigenetics [1] [2] [ unreliable source? ] uses bioinformatic methods [ clarification needed ] to complement experimental research in epigenetics . Due to the recent explosion of epigenome datasets, computational methods play an increasing role in all areas of epigenetic research.

# Computational economics

Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.[1] This subject encompasses computational modelingof economic systems, whether agent-based,[2] general-equilibrium,[3] macroeconomic,[4] or rational-expectations,[5] computational econometrics and statistics,[6] computational finance, computational tools for the design of automated internet markets, programming tools specifically designed for computational economics, and pedagogical tools for the teaching of computational economics. Some of these areas are unique to computational economics, while others extend traditional areas of economics by… More →

# Computational criminology

Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary field that uses computer science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.

# Computational creativity

Computational creativity (Also Known As artificial creativity , mechanical creativity , creative computing or creative computing ) is a Multidisciplinary endeavor That Is site location is the intersection of the fields of artificial intelligence , cognitive psychology , philosophy , and the arts .

# Computational complexity theory

Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science That Focuses we Classifying computational problems selon Their inherent difficulty, and Relating Those classes to Each Other. A computational problem is understood to be a task which is in principle amenable to being solved by a computer, which is equivalent to stating that the problem may be solved by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such… More →

# Computational cognition

Computational cognition (sometimes referred to as computational cognition science ) is the study of the computational basis of learning and inference by mathematical modeling , computer simulation , and behavioralexperiments. In psychology, it is an approach which develops computational models based on experimental results. It seeks to understand the basis of the human method of processing information . Early on computational cognitive scientists sought to bring back and create a scientific form of Brentano’s psychology [1]

# Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses methods of theoretical chemistry , incorporated into effective computer programs , to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids. It is necessary because of the recent relative results concerning the hydrogen molecular ion (the dihydrogen cation , see references therein for more details), the quantum many-body problem can not be solved analytically, much less in closed… More →

# Computational biology

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems. [1] The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in computer science , applied mathematics , animation , statistics , biochemistry , chemistry , biophysics , molecular biology , genetics , genomics , ecology , evolution , anatomy ,neuroscience , and visualization . [2]

# Computational auditory scene analysis

Computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) is the study of auditory scene analysis by computational means. [1] In essence, CASA systems are “machine listening” systems that are likely to have separate sources of sound sources. CASA differs from the field of blind signal separation fait que it is (at least to Some extent) based on the Mechanisms of the human auditory system , and THUS uses no more than two microphone… More →

# Computational astrophysics

Computational astrophysics refers to the methods and computing tools developed and used in astrophysics research. Like computational chemistry or computational physics , it is a specific branch of theoretical astrophysicsand an interdisciplinary field relying on computer science , mathematics , and wider physics . Computational astrophysics is most often studied through an applied mathematics or astrophysics program at PhD level.

# Computational archeology

Computational archeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behavior and behavioral evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed ‘computational’ to their name (eg, computational biology , computational physics and computational sociology ), the term is reserved for (all mathematical) methods that could not be realistically performed without the aid of a computer.

# Computational aeroacoustics

Computational aeroacoustics is a branch of aeroacoustics that aims to analyze the generation of noise by turbulent flows through numerical methods.

# Computable topology

Computable topology is a discipline in mathematics that studies the topological and algebraic structure of computation . Computable topology is computational topology , which studies the application of computation to topology.

# Community informatics

Community informatics (CI) is an interdisciplinary field that is concerned with using information and communication technology (ICT) to empower members of communities and supports their social, cultural, and economic development. [1] [2] Community informatics may contribute to enhancing democracy, supporting the development of social capital, and building well connected communities; moreover, it is probable that such similar actions may be new positive social change . [2] In community informatics, there are… More →

# Cheminformatics

Pathformatics (also known as chemoinformatics , chemoinformatics and chemical informatics ) is the use of computer and informational techniques applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry . These in silicotechniques are used, for example, in pharmaceutical companies in the process of drug discovery . These methods can also be used in chemical and allied industries in various other forms.

# Biological computation

The term “biological computation” refers, variously, to any of the following: – the study of the computations performed by natural biota , [1] [2] [3] [4] including the subject matter of systems biology .

# Biodiversity informatics

Biodiversity Informatics is the application of informatics techniques for biodiversity information for management, presentation, discovery, exploration and analysis. It typically builds on a foundation of taxonomic , biogeographic , or ecological information stored in digital form, which, with the application of modern computer techniques, can yield new ways to view and analyze existing information. yet exist (see niche modeling). Biodiversity Informatics is a Relatively young discipline (the term coined Was in gold around 1992) HAS… More →

# Author profiling

Author profiling is a method of analyzing a number of texts and texts of the author (eg age and gender) based on stylistic and content-based features.

# Astroinformatics

Astroinformatics is an interdisciplinary field of study involving the combination of astronomy , data science , informatics , and information / communications technologies. [1] [2]

# Algorithmic art

Algorithmic art , also known as art algorithm , is art, mostly visual art , of which the design is generated by an algorithm . Algorithmic artists are sometimes called algorists .

# Agent-based computational economics

Agent-based computational economics ( ACE ) is the area of computational economics that studies economic processes, including all economies , as dynamic systems of interacting agents . As such, it falls in the paradigm of complex adaptive systems . [1] Corresponding agent-based models , the ” agents ” are “computational objects modeled as interacting according to rules” over space and time, not real people. The rules are formulated to model behavior and social interactions based on incentives and information. [2]Such rules could also be… More →