SAP HANA

SAP HANA is an in-memory , column-oriented , relational database management system developed and marketed by SAP SE . [1] [2] Its primary function is a database server and is retrieved as requested by the applications. In addition, it Performs advanced analytics ( predictive analytics , spatial data processing , text analytics, text search, streaming analytics , graph data processing ) and includes ETL capabilities as well as an Application Server .

History

During the early development of SAP HANA, a number of technologies were developed or acquired by SAP SE . These included TREX search engine ( in-memory column-oriented search engine ), P * TIME (in-memory OLTPplatform acquired by SAP in 2005), and MaxDB with its in-memory liveCache engine. [3] [4] The first major demonstration of the platform was in 2008: teams from SAP SE , the Hasso Plattner Institute, and Stanford University, an application architecture for real-time analytics and aggregation. Train SAP SE Executive, Vishal Sikka, mentioned this architecture as “Hasso’s New Architecture”. [5] Before the name “HANA” stabilized, people referred to this “New Database”. [6] The software was previously called “SAP High-Performance Analytic Appliance”. [7]

The first product shipped in late November 2010. [4] [8] By mid-2011, the technology had attracted interest in the early days. [9] HANA support for SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse was announced in September 2011 for availability by November. [10]

In 2012, SAP promoted aspects of cloud computing . [11] In October 2012, SAP announced a platform for a service offering called the SAP HANA Cloud Platform [12] [13] and a variant called SAP HANA One that used a smaller amount of memory. [14] [15]

In May 2013, a managed private cloud offering called the HANA Enterprise Cloud service was announced. [16] [17]

In May 2013, Business Suite on HANA became available, enabling customers to run SAP Enterprise Resource Planning on the HANA platform. [18] [19]

S / 4HANA , released in 2015, published specifically for the HANA platform, combines functionality for ERP , CRM , SRM and others into a single HANA system. [20] S / 4HANA is intended to be a simplified business suite, by replacing earlier generation ERP systems. [21] While it is likely that SAP will focus its innovations on S / 4HANA, some customers using non-HANA systems have raised concerns of being locked into SAP products. Since S / 4HANA requires an SAP HANA system to run, customers running SAP business suite applications on hardware not certified by SAP would need to migrate to a SAP-certified HANA database should they choose the features offered by S / 4HANA. [22]

Rather than versioning , the software utilizes service packs , referred to as Support Package Stacks (SPS), for updates. Support Package Stacks are released every 6 months. [23]

In November 2016 SAP announced SAP HANA 2, which provides two new cloud services: Text Analysis and Earth Observation Analysis. [24] HANA customers can upgrade to HANA 2 from SPS10 and above. Customers running SPS9 and below must first upgrade to SPS12 before upgrading to HANA 2 SPS01. [25]

Architecture

Overview

The key distinctions between HANA and previous generation SAP systems are that it is a column-oriented , in-memory database , that combines OLAP and OLTP operations into a single system; thus in general SAP HANA is an OLTAP system. [26] Storing data in hand memory Rather one disk Provides faster data access and, by extension, faster querying and processing. [27] While storing data in-memory confers performance advantages, it is more costly form data storage. Observing data access patterns, up to 85% of data in an enterprise system may be infrequently accessed [27]so it can be cost-effective to store frequently accessed, or “hot”, data in-memory while the less frequently accessed “warm” data is stored on disk, an SAP approach has termed “Dynamic tiering”. [28]

Column-oriented systems , rather than storing all data for a single row in the same location (row-oriented systems). This can enable performance enhancements for OLAP queries on large data sets and allows greater vertical compression of similar data in a single column. If the read times for column-stored data is fast enough, consolidated views of the data can be Performed on the fly , Removing the Need For Maintaining aggregate views and Its associated data redundancy . [29]

ALTHOUGH row-oriented systems-have-been traditionally Favored for OLTP , in-memory storage technologies opens to Develop Hybrid systems suitable for Both OLAP and OLTP capabilities, [30] Removing the need to Maintain separate systems for OLTP and OLAP operations.

Indexer components

The index server performs session management, authorization, transaction management and command processing. The database has both a row store and a columnar store. Users can create tables using the store, but the columnar store has more capabilities and is most frequently used. citation needed ] The index server also places between persistent and persistent storage files. The XS engine allows web applications to be built. [31]

SAP HANA Information Modeling (also known as SAP HANA Data Modeling) is a part of HANA application development. Modeling is the methodology to expose operational data to the end user. Reusable virtual objects (named calculation views) are used in the modeling process.

MVCC

SAP HANA marriages concurrency through the use of multi-version concurrency control (MVCC), qui Gives every transaction snapshot of the database at a Point in Time. When an MVCC database needs to update an item of data, it will be obsolete and add the newer version. [32] [33]

Streaming and Data Virtualization

Data Virtualization is available via a Smart Data Access tool named. [34] Streaming data , for example from Internet of things devices, is available via a tool named Smart Data Streaming. [35]Dedicated streaming analytics, (predictive analytics) can be employed against data ingested by Smart Data Streaming. [36]

Big Data

In a scale-out environment, HANA can support volumes of up-to-date data in-memory. [37] HANA has capabilities to manage data tiering, namely offloading less frequently -accessed data to disk-based storage. HANA’s Data Lifecycle Management HANA server, ie “warm data” storage, or to HANA server, ie “warm data” storage, or to offload data from memory or disk to separate Hadoop server, ie “cold” data storage.[38]

Hanaop HANAOP with enterprise data in HANA. Vora leverages some of the same concepts from HANA, namely, in-memory storage, pushdown query, and massive parallelization. [39]

Analytics

SAP HANA includes a number of analytic engines for various types of data processing. The Business Function Library includes a number of algorithms made to address common business data processing algorithms such as asset depreciation , rolling forecast and moving average . [40] The Predictive Analytics Library includes native algorithms for calculating common statistical measures in such areas as clustering , classification and time series analysis . [41]

HANA Incorporates the open source statistical programming language R as a supported language Within stored procedures . [42]

The column-store database offers graph database capabilities. The graph engine supports the Cypher Query Language as well as visual graph manipulation via a tool called Graph Viewer. Graph data structures are stored directly in HANA’s column store. [43] Pre-built algorithms in the graph engine include matching pattern, neighborhood search, single shortest path, and strongly connected components. Use cases for the Graph Engine include traceability, fraud detection, and logistics and road planning. [44]

HANA also includes a spatial database engine that supports spatial data types and SQL extensions for CRUD operations on spatial data. HANA is certified by the Open Geospatial Consortium . [45] and integrates with ESRI’s ArcGIS geographic information system . [46] .

In addition to numerical and statistical algorithms, HANA can perform text analytics and enterprise text search. HANA’s search capability is based on “fuzzy” fault-tolerant search, much like modern web-based search engines. Results include a statistical measure for the purpose of determining the value of a product. [47] Analyzes available including identifying entities such as people, dates, places, organizations, requests, problems, and more. Such entity extraction can be catered for by Customer of preferences ( Customer ‘s preferences and expectations), Enterprise (ie mergers, acquisitions, products, organizations) and Public Sector (public persons, events, organizations). [48] Custom extraction and dictionaries can also be implemented.

Application Development

Besides the database and data analytics capabilities, SAP HANA is a web-based application server , hosting user-facing applications tightly integrated with the database and analytics engines of HANA. The “XS Advanced Engine” (XSA) natively supports Node.js and JavaEE languages ​​and runtimes. XSA is based on Cloud Foundry architecture and thus supports the notion of “Bring Your Own Language”, allowing developers to develop and deploy applications natively supported within XSA, as well as deploying applications as microservices . XSA also supports JavaScript server-side (XSJS). [49]

Supporting the application server is a suite of application for lifecycle management tools allowing development deployment and monitoring of user-facing applications. [50]

Deployment

HANA can be deployed on-premise or in the cloud from a cloud service providers . [51]

HANA can be used as a new appliance from a certified hardware vendor. [52] or , existing hardware components such as storage and network can be used as part of the implementation, an approach which SAP calls “Tailored Data Center Integration (TDI)”. [53] [54] HANA is certified to run multiple operating systems [55] including Red Hat Enterprise Linux [56] and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server . [57] Supported hardware platforms for on-premise deployment include Intel 64 [58] and POWER Systems . [59] The system is designed to support bothhorizontal and vertical scaling .

Multiple cloud providers offer SAP HANA on an Infrastructure as a Service basis, including:

  • Amazon Web Services [60]
  • Microsoft Azure [61]
  • Google Cloud Platform [62]
  • IBM Softlayer [63]
  • Huawei FusionSphere [64]
  • HP Helion [65]

SAP also offers their own cloud services in the form of:

  • SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud, a privately managed cloud [66]
  • SAP Cloud Platform (previously known as HANA Cloud Platform), Platform as a Service [67]

Editions

SAP HANA is primarily divided into two categories. [68]

Runtime License:

SAP Business Warehouse powered by SAP HANA and SAP S / 4HANA .

Full Use License:

Used to run both SAP and non-SAP applications. This licensing can be used to create custom applications. [69]

As part of the full use license, features are grouped as editions targeting various use cases.

  • Base Edition: Provides core database features and development tools but does not support SAP applications.
  • Platform Edition: Basic edition plus spatial, predictive, R server integration, search, text, analytics, graphics engines and additional packaged business libraries.
  • Enterprise Edition: Platform edition plus additional bundled components for some of the capabilities and the rule framework.

In addition, capabilities such as streaming and ETL are licensed as additional options. [70]

As of 9th March 2017, SAP HANA is available in an Express edition; a streamlined version which can run on laptops and other resource-limited environments. This edition is primarily aimed at students, and is free to use for in-memory databases up to 32GB.