Geographic information system

geographic information system ( GIS ) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data . The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science (GIScience) to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information systems [1] and is a broad domain within the broader academic discipline of geoinformatics . [2] What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure , a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries. Continue reading “Geographic information system”

Financial modeling

Financial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model ) of a real world financial situation. [1] This is a mathematical model designed to represent (a simplified version of) the performance of a financial asset or portfolio of a business, project , or any other investment. Financial modeling is a general term that means different things to different users; the reference report is for accounting and corporate finance applications, or for quantitative finance applications. While there is some debate in the industry to the nature of financial modelingtradecraft , such as welding, or a science -the task of financial modeling has been gaining acceptance and rigor over the years. [2] Typically, financial modeling is understood to be an exercise in financial asset pricing, or a quantitative nature. In other words, financial modeling is about translating a set of hypotheses about the behavior of markets or agents into numerical predictions; for example, a firm’s decisions on investments (or the firm will invest 20% of assets), or investment returns [3] (returns on “stock A” will, on average, be 10% higher than the market’s returns). Continue reading “Financial modeling”

Environmental informatics

Environmental information is the science of information applied to environmental science . As a result, it provides the information processing and communication infrastructure to the interdisciplinary field of environmental science [1] , and the use of information and knowledge integration , the application of computational intelligence to environmental data and the identification of environmental impacts of information technology . The UK Natural Environment Research Councildefines environmental informatics as the “research and system development on the environment sciences relating to the creation, collection, storage, processing, modeling, interpretation, display and dissemination of data and information.” [2] Kostas Karatzas defined environmental information as the “creation of a new knowledge-paradigm ‘towards serving environmental management needs.” [3] Karatzas is an integrator of science , methods and techniques and not just the result of using information and software technology methods and tools for serving environmental engineering needs. ” Continue reading “Environmental informatics”

Computer simulation

Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model . Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics ( computational physics ), astrophysics , climatology , chemistry and biology , human systems in economics , psychology , social science , and engineering . Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system’s model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technologyand to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions . [1] Continue reading “Computer simulation”

Computational transportation science

Computational Transportation Science (CTS) is an emerging discipline that combines computer science and engineering with modeling, planning, and economic aspects of transportation . The discipline studies how to improve the safety, mobility, and sustainability of the system by taking advantage of information technologies and ubiquitous computing . A list of subjects encompassed by CTS can be found at include. [1] Continue reading “Computational transportation science”