Computational criminology

Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary field that uses computer science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.

Methods

Computing science methods being used include:

  • Algorithms
  • Data Mining
  • Data Structures
  • Formal Methods
  • Software Development Process

Areas of use

Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary in the sense that both criminologists and computer scientists work together to ensure that their computer models and their counterparts. Areas of Criminology for Which Computational Approaches Are Being Used:

  • Environmental Criminology
  • Identity Theft
  • Justice

Forensics

Computational forensics (CF) is a quantitative approach to the methodology of the forensic sciences . It involves computer-based modeling , computer simulation , analysis , and recognition in studying and solving problems posed in various forensic disciplines. CF integrates expertise from computational science and forensic sciences .

A broad range of objects, substances and processes are investigated, which are mainly based on pattern evidence, such as fingerprints, shoeprints, documents, etc., [1] but also physiological and behavioral patterns , DNA , digital evidence and crime scenes .

Computational methods find a place in the forensic sciences in several ways, [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] as for example:

  • rigorous quantification of individuality,
  • definition and establishment of likelihood ratio ,
  • increase of efficiency and effectiveness in daily forensic casework.

Algorithms Implemented are from the fields of signal and image processing , computer vision , [7] computer graphics , data visualization , statistical pattern recognition , data mining , machine learning , and robotics .

Computer forensics (also referred to as ” digital forensics ” or “forensic information technology”) is a specific discipline that could use computational science to study digital evidence . Computational Forensics examines various types of evidence .

Forensic animation

Forensic animation is a branch of forensic science in which audio-visual reconstructions of incidents or accidents are created to aid investigators. Examples include the use of computer animation , stills, and other audio visual aids. Application of computer animation in today’s courtrooms is becoming more popular.

The first use of forensic animation was in Connors c. United States , both sides used computer re-creations and animations in a crash of Delta Flight 191 on August 2, 1985. [8] The crash resulted in the deaths of 137 people and extensive property damage. [9] In the arising lawsuit As part of the plaintiff presentation, a 45-minute computer generated presentation was introduced to the intricacies of the evidence and thus began forensic animation. [10]

The first report of computer animation in a US criminal trial was in the 1991 Marin County, CA homicide trial of James Mitchell (of the porn-businessman Mitchell Brothers) [11] The prosecution used the animation to explain the complex details of the shooting incident to the jury. It showed the positions of James Mitchell, Artie Mitchell (the victim), the bullet impact points, and the path taken by bullets as they entered Artie’s body. The animation was admitted, over objection by the defense, and the case resulted in a conviction. The use of the animation has been successful and the success of the forensic animation led to its use in many other trials. In India Prof. TD Dograat AIIMS New Delhi in 2008, a case study of Murder and Terrorist Encounter Killings ( Batla house encounter case ). [12]

References

  1. Jump up^ Srihari SN, “Beyond CSI: The Rise of Computational Forensics”,IEEE Spectrum, pp. 38-43, December 2010.
  2. Jump up^ Computational Forensics Project – Automated Reconstruction of Human Faces (Archival page 6/2002)
  3. Jump up^ Wong, JL; Kirovski, D .; Potkonjak, M. (2004). “Computational forensic techniques for intellectual property protection”. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems . 23 (6): 987-994. doi : 10.1109 / TCAD.2004.828122 . DIO 10.1109 / TCAD.2004.828122
  4. Jump up^ Propelled Into Computational Forensics by 9/11, NCBI Preps Software QA to Katrina Victims (November 28, 2005)
  5. Jump up^ Franke, Katrin; Srihari, Sargur (2007). “Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation”. Third International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security, 2007. IAS 2007 : 383-386. DOI 10.1109 / IAS.2007.84.
  6. Jump up^ Book Announcement:Statistical DNA Forensics: Theory, Methods and Computation(January 2008),Researchandmarkets.com
  7. Jump up^ YiZhen Huang & YangJing Long (2008). “Demosaicking recognition with applications in digital photo authentication based on a quadratic pixel correlation model” (PDF) . Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition : 1-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-17.
  8. Jump up^ http://digitalcommons.law.msu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1102&context=king
  9. Jump up^ http://www.expertlaw.com/library/animation/forensic_animation.html
  10. Jump up^ http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/abaj75&div=261&id=&page=
  11. Jump up^ http://articles.latimes.com/1993-12-17/news/mn-2822_1_computer-animation
  12. Jump up^ “Reconstruction of Scene by Forensic Animation Two Case Reports”(PDF) . J Indian Acad Forensic Med.Vol. 36, No. 1. January 2014 . Retrieved 24 June 2014 .